Articles
Here you will find a wide range of birding related articles from various organisations, conservation bodies as well as individual accounts of rare bird finds and other interesting articles.
 
 
 
 
new  Canada delta in danger from trading port expansion   (Conservation News)
The Fraser delta's strategic location - opening into the Pacific Ocean - has seen it estuary grow into a major transport and trading hub. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jul 2019)
 
 
new  Hen Harrier suffers horrific death on Leadhills Estate grouse moor   (Wildlife crime)
An adult male hen harrier has suffered appalling injuries after being caught in a spring trap that had been illegally-set next to its nest on a Scottish grouse moor. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jul 2019)
 
 
new  Avian malaria may be behind drastic decline of London's House Sparrows   (Research)
London's House Sparrows have plummeted by 71% since 1995, with new research suggesting avian malaria could be to blame. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jul 2019)
 
 
new  Weekly Birding Roundup 10 - 16 Jul   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jul 2019)
 
 
new  How puffins catch food outside the breeding season   (Research)
Little is known about how seabirds catch their food outside the breeding season but modern technology is giving researchers new insights into their feeding habits. More here >
Written by:  (16 Jul 2019)
 
 
new  Invasive parrots have varying impacts on European biodiversity, citizens and economy   (Research)
Non-native parrots can cause substantial agricultural damage and threaten native biodiversity, although impacts vary strongly depending on where these parrots have been introduced. More here >
Written by:  (16 Jul 2019)
 
 
new  People's Postcode Lottery players help Corn Buntings   (Conservation News)
Thanks to players of the People's Postcode Lottery, the Postcode Local Trust has awarded funding for a 'Corn Buntings in the Community' project. More here >
Written by:  (16 Jul 2019)
 
 
new  Cats kill 1.3 million Australian birds each day   (Research)
Pet and feral cats together are killing over two billion reptiles, birds and mammals per year in Australia, and most of these animals are natives. More here >
Written by:  (16 Jul 2019)
 
 
Another dead Hen Harrier found on North Yorkshire grouse moor   (Wildlife crime)
The Hen Harrier named River was satellite tagged in Lancashire in 2018, her body was found on Ilton Moor on the Swinton Estate in North Yorkshire. More here >
Written by:  (11 Jul 2019)
 
 
Weekly Birding Roundup 3 - 9 Jul   (Weekly Roundup)
Chris Batty brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic which featured a Sooty Tern in the north east and a Two-barred Crossbill influx. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Oldest ever tern found on Scottish nature reserve   (News)
The remains of a seabird found on Forvie National Nature Reserve have been confirmed as the UK’s oldest ever recorded Arctic Tern. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Purple Emperor Returns to Norfolk   (Conservation News)
The elusive butterfly which disappeared from Norfolk half a century ago, has officially returned, wildlife charity Butterfly Conservation can reveal. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Global animal tracking system Icarus is switched on   (Conservation News)
With the global tracking system Icarus, scientists can follow the movements of animals around the globe goes into operation on 10 July 2019. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Yellow Sea shorebird habitats secure World Heritage listing   (Conservation News)
Key sites along the Chinese coastline of the Yellow Sea have secured World Heritage status, a lifeline for 17 globally threatened migratory shorebird species that rely on these habitats. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Victory for Montenegro's bird paradise   (Conservation News)
After 15 years of fighting by Birdlife's partner in Montenegro the salt pans of Ulcinj Salina have been declared a national protected area!. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Young Peregrine Falcon illegally shot   (Wildlife crime)
A young Peregrine had to be euthanised after it was found with a broken wing and a shotgun pellet in its chest. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Record number of Blue-throated Macaw chicks fledged   (Conservation News)
The Blue-throated Macaw is only found in one place on earth - the Beni Savanna of Bolivia. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
RSPB Scotland celebrates 60 years of Loch Garten Ospreys   (Event)
RSPB Scotland is celebrating the 60th anniversary of The Loch Garten Osprey Centre and Operation Osprey this year and is inviting the public to join in the Birthday Bash. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Cumbria receives a new, EU funded, National Nature Reserve   (Conservation News)
Natural England has announced the declaration of a new National Nature Reserve in Cumbria's Bolton Fell and Walton Mosses National Nature Reserve. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jul 2019)
 
 
Gamebirds released for commercial shooting may be boosting predator numbers   (Research)
The release of Pheasants and Red-legged Partridges for commercial shoots may be boosting numbers of the avian predators and scavengers that feed upon them. More here >
Written by:  (03 Jul 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 26 Jun - 2 Jul   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from across Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (03 Jul 2019)
 
 
Marsh Harrier shot next to Norfolk reserve   (Wildlife crime)
On 21 June a dog walker came across a critically injured male Marsh Harrier on the boundary of the Hawk and Owl Trust's nature reserve at Sculthorpe Moor near Fakenham in Norfolk. More here >
Written by:  (03 Jul 2019)
 
 
Baby Boomers at RSPB Leighton Moss   (Conservation News)
Rare bitterns have bred successfully at RSPB Leighton Moss in Silverdale once again, following the introduction of new methods of managing the nature reserveís vast reedbeds. More here >
Written by:  (02 Jul 2019)
 
 
EU-funded project restores key site for critically-endangered terns   (Conservation News)
Roseate Terns - the rarest breeding seabirds in Europe - could be brought back from the brink in Northern Ireland thanks to a major island restoration project. More here >
Written by:  (02 Jul 2019)
 
 
Extinct butterfly breeds in English first   (Conservation News)
A previously extinct butterfly has bred successfully in an English woodland for the first time in more than 40 years as part of the ambitious conservation project, Back from the Brink. More here >
Written by:  (01 Jul 2019)
 
 
Two Golden Eagles 'vanish' on the same morning, on the same Scottish grouse moor   (Wildlife crime)
Two young satellite-tagged Golden Eagles have disappeared in suspicious circumstances, within hours of each other, on the same Scottish grouse moor. More here >
Written by:  (01 Jul 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 19 - 25 Jun   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from a superb mid-June week across Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (26 Jun 2019)
 
 
Successful 'alien' bird invasions are location dependent   (Research)
Great Britain is in the top 10% of areas for harbouring alien species, including the Ring-ringed Parakeet, Canada Goose and Mandarin Duck. More here >
Written by:  (25 Jun 2019)
 
 
Little Tern clutches stolen from Norfolk beach   (Conservation News)
The RSPB are assisting Norfolk Constabulary in an investigation surrounding the suspected theft of 7 clutches of Little Tern eggs from Winterton beach. More here >
Written by:  (25 Jun 2019)
 
 
Where Small Things Matter: Saving Kenya's Coastal Forests   (Conservation News)
The World Land Trust has launched a new appeal to save 810 acres of Kenya's threatened coastal forest. More here >
Written by:  (25 Jun 2019)
 
 
Key locations for declining songbird revealed   (Research)
Researchers in six states assembled an unprecedented effort to track where Prothonotary Warblers that breed across the eastern U.S. go in winter. More here >
Written by:  (25 Jun 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 12 - 18 Jun   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (19 Jun 2019)
 
 
Climate change benefits for Giant Petrels   (Conservation News)
Giant Petrels will be 'temporary' winners from the effects of climate change in the Antarctic region, but males and females will benefit in very different ways, a new study shows. More here >
Written by:  (18 Jun 2019)
 
 
Algerian forest reinstated as National Park after turbulent history   (Conservation News)
Djebel Babor forest in Northern Algeria was a National Park for 60 years before being stripped of its status. More here >
Written by:  (18 Jun 2019)
 
 
No evidence for increased egg predation in the Arctic   (Conservation News)
Climate and ecosystems are changing, but predation on shorebird nests has changed little around the globe over the past 60 years, according to a study by an international team of 60 researchers. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jun 2019)
 
 
Forest fire pushes imperilled parrot closer to the brink   (Conservation News)
A devastating forest fire in Nicaragua has destroyed a vitally important nesting and roosting site of the Yellow-naped Amazon, one of the most endangered parrots in Central America. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jun 2019)
 
 
Reintroduction of Great Green Macaws boosts wild population   (Conservation News)
Since 2017, Fundacion Jocotoco has released a total of 14 Great Green Macaws into their Ayampe Reserve in Ecuador, to help the survival of this critically threatened sub-species of Great Green Macaw. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jun 2019)
 
 
Mass poisoning kills at least 27 vultures in Zululand   (Wildlife crime)
Mass poisoning strikes again - this time killing at least 27 vultures in Zululand within a week. Deaths from this tragedy include 23 critically endangered African white-backed vultures. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jun 2019)
 
 
Bumper breeding season at Tanzania's 'Flamingo Factory' lake   (Conservation News)
Researchers at Lake Natron reported a 130% increase in the number of adults and a 600% increase in chicks since last year. More here >
Written by:  (17 Jun 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 5 - 11 Jun   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (12 Jun 2019)
 
 
Four Hen Harrier nests in Bowland   (Conservation News)
RSPB staff and volunteers discovered the nests on the United Utilities Bowland Estate in early spring and have been monitoring them closely ever since. More here >
Written by:  (12 Jun 2019)
 
 
Conservationists concerned about late Swift return   (Conservation News)
Many swifts have arrived up to two weeks late, and the RSPB has received numerous calls and emails from people concerned at their absence. More here >
Written by:  (11 Jun 2019)
 
 
Beardies breeding at Burton Mere for first time   (Conservation News)
Six birds arrived at Burton Mere Wetlands last autumn, at least two pairs are now known to have bred for the first time on the Dee Estuary. More here >
Written by:  (11 Jun 2019)
 
 
Finders-in-the-field: Baillon's Crake, Seahouses, Northumberland   (Finders account)
On a two-day stop off in Northumberland on his way home from a Scottish holiday Richard Kelly finds a first for Northumberland. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jun 2019)
 
 
Gwent levels saved from motorway plans   (Conservation News)
The Welsh Government has shown its commitment to a wilder future, after rejecting plans to build an M4 relief road across the Gwent Levels. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jun 2019)
 
 
Marsh Harrier eggs taken from Norfolk nest   (Wildlife crime)
Police are appealing for information following the theft of bird eggs from a nest near Wells-next-the-Sea. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jun 2019)
 
 
Hen Harrier plan to begin despite lack of support from conservationists   (Conservation News)
Natural England has confirmed that the controversial plan of Hen Harrier brood management will being soon, despite little or no support from major conservation organisations. More here >
Written by:  (10 Jun 2019)
 
 
Appeal launched after woman strangles swan to death in park   (Wildlife crime)
Police and the RSPCA were contacted by a member of the public who saw the swan being attacked by a woman in Chester-le-Street, on May 30. More here >
Written by:  (06 Jun 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 29 May - 4 Jun   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (05 Jun 2019)
 
 
Cambodia's Bengal Florican population down 55 percent since 2012   (Conservation News)
Conservationists now estimate that the number of displaying males in 2018 was only 104, down from 216 in 2012 and were found at only 4 sites, down from 10 in 2012. More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Tiger sharks eat migrating songbirds   (Research)
Tiger sharks appear to prey on migrating songbirds that fall into the ocean during autumnal storms new research has found. More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Rare butterfly returns after 52-year absence   (Conservation News)
A rare butterfly has been reintroduced to a site in Derbyshire where it's not been seen for 52 years, thanks to an ambitious project by the National Trust and Butterfly Conservation. More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Curlew eggs destined to be destroyed rescued from RAF airbases   (Conservation News)
Under normal circumstances, the eggs from nests near military runways have to be destroyed under an individual licence to protect flight safety. More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Cranes successfully breed at Wicken Fen for the first time in at least 120 years   (Conservation News)
The National Trust suspects that it could actually be the first chick to be born at the reserve in over 500 years. More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Funding secures exciting addition to RSPB Marshside   (Conservation News)
Thanks to funding from Biffa Award, the RSPB is taking even more birds under its wing on the Ribble Estuary after recently purchasing Crossens Inner Marsh. More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Solar deal powers up RSPB nature reserves   (Conservation News)
The RSPB is planning to install over 700 solar panels across seven nature reserves and is expecting the panels will provide up to 80% of the sites' annual energy. More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Raven found poisoned on Ruabon moor   (Wildlife Crime)
The dead bird was found on the same estate near Wrexham, where two satellite-tagged hen harriers recently vanished.
More here >
Written by:  (04 Jun 2019)
 
 
Finders-in-the-field: Great Knot, Unst   (Finders account)
Allan Conlin describes the finding of Britain's sixth ever, and Shetland's second, Great Knot flying in off the sea on Unst.
More here >
Written by:  (03 Jun 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 22 - 28 May   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by: Jon Dunn (29 May 2019)
 
 
Study predicts shift to smaller animals over next century   (Research)
Researchers at the University of Southampton have forecast a worldwide move towards smaller birds and mammals over the next 100 years. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
Escaped parrots are now naturalised in 23 US states   (Research)
Research data on bird sightings finds that 56 different parrot species have been spotted in 43 states, and 25 of those species are now breeding in the wild in 23 different states. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
Another Hen Harrier disappears in Cairngorms National Park   (Wildlife crime)
RSPB Scotland are appealing for information following the sudden disappearance of a young Hen Harrier in an area notorious for bird of prey persecution. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
Plans for dangerous wind farm halted by Birdlife partner   (Conservation News)
BirdLife South Africa have halted plans for the farm at Eastern Cape's Groot Winterhoekber - an important area for threatened raptors. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
UK moths battling unfair reputation   (Conservation News)
Around three quarters of the UK population have some negative opinion of moths, with many people believing the majority eat clothes and are pests, a study has revealed. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
RSPCA appeal after family of dead ducks found in bag outside Asda   (Wildlife crime)
The female mallard and nine ducklings were found in a black bin liner outside Asda in Colne, Lancashire, on Saturday 27 April. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
Costa del Dee: Spoonbill and rare herons set to nest at RSPB reserve   (Conservation News)
Five different waterbird species, some more commonly seen in the Mediterranean, have arrived at RSPB Burton Mere Wetlands nature reserve this spring and are showing positive signs of breeding. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
Feeding garden birds significantly alters the composition of bird communities   (Research)
As a nation we spend an estimated £200-300 million on bird feeding products each year which could potentially sustain up to 196 million birds. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
Finders-in-the-field: Western Orphean Warbler, Bardsey   (Finders account)
Sam Prettyman describes the ringing highlight of a lifetime when he found Wales' second Western Orphean Warbler in the nets on Bardsey. More here >
Written by:  (28 May 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 15 - 21 May   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by: Jon Dunn (22 May 2019)
 
 
150th Osprey chick hatches at Rutland Water Nature Reserve   (Conservation News)
On 13th May the Rutland Osprey Project celebrated a major milestone and welcomed its 150th chick into the world. More here >
Written by: Wildlife Trust (21 May 2019)
 
 
A year in the life of a Turtle Dove   (Conservation News)
Dr Susana Requena from the RSPB's Centre for Conservation Science explains how new technology is uncovering the secrets of Turtle Dove migration. More here >
Written by: RSPB (18 May 2019)
 
 
RSPB announces new Chief Executive   (Press report)
The RSPB has this week announced that its new Chief Executive will be Beccy Speight, currently Chief Executive at the Woodland Trust. More here >
Written by: RSPB (17 May 2019)
 
 
The Collared Flycatcher in Easington, East Yorkshire, 11th May 2019   (Finders account)
Steve Webb and Paul French discuss the finding and identification of the Collared Flycatcher at Easington. More here >
Written by: Steve Webb and Paul French (16 May 2019)
 
 
The American Bittern on Lewis, Western Isles, 10th May 2019   (Finders account)
Vicky Anderson describes how she found the American Bittern on the Western Isles. More here >
Written by: Rare Bird Alert (15 May 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 8 - 14 May   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by: Jon Dunn (15 May 2019)
 
 
Help our puffins: join the Puffarazzi   (Conservation News)
The RSPB's innovative citizen science photography project returns. More here >
Written by: RSPB (14 May 2019)
 
 
Spurn Migration Festival 2019 Tickets on sale   (News)
Tickets for the 2019 Spurn Migration Festival are on sale from Monday 13th May. More here >
Written by: Spurn Bird Observatory (14 May 2019)
 
 
First Blue-eyed Ground-dove chick recorded   (Conservation News)
In great news for the Critically Endangered Blue-eyed Ground-dove, a chick has been seen close to fledging. More here >
Written by: BirdLife (13 May 2019)
 
 
Public Appeal Helps Protect Chesil Beach Little Terns   (Conservation News)
In February the RSPB launched a Just Giving Appeal, to raise the urgently needed funds to protect this year's chicks. More here >
Written by:  (10 May 2019)
 
 
Bewick's Swans being hunted accidentally   (Conservation News)
A survey of hunters in Arkhangelsk Oblast and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug revealed that just 14% of participants were able to identify Bewick's correctly. More here >
Written by:  (10 May 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 1 - 7 May   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (08 May 2019)
 
 
Hen Harrier 'Skylar' disappears near Scottish grouse moor   (Conservation News)
RSPB Scotland is appealing for information from the public after a young Hen Harrier, fitted with a satellite transmitter, disappeared suddenly on a moor near Elvanfoot. More here >
Written by:  (08 May 2019)
 
 
Iconic Welsh bird disappearing   (Conservation News)
The latest Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) report shows that the Welsh breeding Curlew population has fallen by 68% between 1995 and 2017. More here >
Written by:  (08 May 2019)
 
 
UV Lights on Power Lines May Help Save Cranes   (Research)
Adding UV lights to which many birds are sensitive can cut crane collisions with power lines by 98%. More here >
Written by:  (08 May 2019)
 
 
Scottish Starlings struggle   (Conservation News)
Scottish Starling numbers have fallen by almost a third, following an alarming trend that is mirrored across the UK. More here >
Written by:  (08 May 2019)
 
 
Greenfinches disappearing in Northern Ireland   (Conservation News)
The main driver of the fall in the population is thought to be the disease Trichomonosis, first emerging in finch populations following spill-over from Woodpigeons. More here >
Written by:  (08 May 2019)
 
 
UK's birds hit by weather double whammy in 2018   (Conservation News)
The latest results published in the 2018 Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) report, suggest that the Beast from the East and Saharan winds may have had a big impact on both resident and migrant birds. More here >
Written by:  (02 May 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 24 - 30 Apr   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (01 May 2019)
 
 
Catastrophic breeding failure at Emperor Penguin colony   (Conservation News)
Emperor Penguins at the Halley Bay colony in the Weddell Sea have failed to raise chicks for the last three years, scientists have discovered. More here >
Written by:  (30 Apr 2019)
 
 
Migration route of Steppe Whimbrel discovered   (Conservation News)
A newly published report is beginning to fill in the gaps in our knowledge of a species which was believed to be extinct 25 years ago. More here >
Written by:  (30 Apr 2019)
 
 
Weekly birding roundup 17 - 23 Apr   (Weekly Roundup)
Jon Dunn brings you a comprehensive roundup of the best birds from the last week from around Britain, Ireland and the Western Palearctic. More here >
Written by:  (24 Apr 2019)
 
 
Wild Justice wins legal challenge to Natural England's General Licenses   (Conservation News)
After nearly four decades of unlawful casual killing of tens of millions of birds the current system has been shown to be unlawful by the tiny and fledgling wildlife organisation. More here >
Written by:  (24 Apr 2019)
 
 
Major study reveals huge decline in moth abundance   (Conservation News)
Moth numbers have declined 46% over the last 25 years in Scotland while their distribution has increased, a report has revealed. More here >
Written by:  (24 Apr 2019)
 
 
Google searches reveal popular bird species   (Research)
Cross-referencing a decade of Google searches and citizen science observations, researchers have determined which of 621 North American bird species are currently the most popular. More here >
Written by:  (24 Apr 2019)
 
 
Zoologists describe two new bird species in Indonesia   (Research)
The new species are Wangi-wangi White-eye and Wakatobi White-eye. More here >
Written by:  (24 Apr 2019)
 
 
Kakapow! Rare world's fattest parrot has record breeding season   (Conservation News)
The world's fattest parrot, the critically endangered Kakapo, has enjoyed a record breaking breeding season. More here >
Written by:  (24 Apr 2019)
 
 
White-winged Flufftail's call recorded for the first time   (Conservation News)
In December last year, the call of one of the world's rarest birds was identified and recorded for the first time by BirdLife South Africa. More here >
Written by:  (24 Apr 2019)
 
 
'Project Yellow-browed' - tracking migrant birds across the UK   (Conservation News)
Spurn Bird Observatory are the forefront of an exciting new project to use a network of radio receivers around the UK to track migrant birds such as Yellow-browed Warbler. More here >
Written by:  (17 Apr 2019)
 
 
Protected status secured for Cambodia's Stung Sen wetlands   (Conservation News)
Thanks to the work of BirdLife International Cambodia Programme, the rich and biologically diverse Stung Sen wetland has been designated as a Wetland of International Importance. More here >
Written by:  (17 Apr 2019)
 
 
Operation Easter 2019 - stopping egg thieves and collectors   (Wildlife crime)
Egg thieves will go to any lengths to raid the nests of rare species but Operation EASTER is determined to stop them in their tracks. More here >
Written by:  (17 Apr 2019)
 
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